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Commercial Crew & Cargo Program Office

From 2006 to 2013, the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program administered by the Commercial Crew & Cargo Program Office (C3PO) at the Johnson Space Center endeavored to stimulate U.S. commercial space transportation capabilities by pursuing a new way of doing business with industry.

C3PO collaborated with a team of attorneys, procurement specialists, and even a venture capitalist to formulate and implement a new form of funded Space Act Agreement (SAA) based on the Agency’s “Other Transaction” Authority.

In August 2006, SpaceX and Rocketplane Kistler were selected as the Agency’s first COTS commercial partners. However, NASA had to terminate the agreement with Rocketplane Kistler due to their private funding issues, and in February 2008 the Agency selected the Orbital Sciences Corporation as a new industry partner.

NASA worked with SpaceX and Orbital to meet the financial, programmatic, and technical milestones of their funded SAAs—milestones that would culminate in the development of new, commercially-owned transportation services to the International Space Station.

Oral history interviews were conducted with many of the individuals who contributed to the success of the COTS program. Their efforts helped to realize the vision of cost-effective, U.S. space transportation capabilities and a successful partnership with industry.

Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Final Report (Cover)

NASA issued its final report on the now-complete Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program. The report, titled “Commercial Orbital Transportation Services, A New Era in Spaceflight” (NASA/SP-2014-617, PDF 15.1 MB), documents the work of NASA’s Commercial Crew & Cargo Program Office between 2005 and 2013 to partner with private industry to take over more routine operations in low-Earth orbit.

Alexander, Bretton
3-18-13 (74K)
Commercial Spaceflight Advocate
Arena, Jonathan A.
4-22-13 (68K)
NASA Attorney
Brinkley, Randolph H.
5-1-13 (49K)
RpK President
Buzza, Tim
1-15-13 (53K)
SpaceX VP of Launch and Test
Capozzoli, Peter
1-16-13 (43K)
SpaceX Mission Manager
Couluris, John
1-15-13 (68K)
SpaceX Sr. Director, Launch and Mission Operations
Culbertson, Frank L.
6-4-13 (66K)
Orbital Executive VP & General Manager, Advanced Programs Group
Cuzzupoli, Joseph W.
4-29-13 (49K)
RpK VP & K-1 Program Manager
DeMauro, Frank
6-4-13 (132K)
Orbital VP & Program Director, COTS/CRS
Eberly, Kurt
6-3-13 (198K)
Orbital Deputy Project Director, Antares
Elias, Antonio L.
6-3-13 (58K)
Orbital Executive VP & Chief Technical Officer
French, George D
5-1-13 (35K)
Garver, Lori M.
6-26-13 (29K)
NASA Deputy Administrator
Gerstenmaier, William H.
6-12-13 (63K)
NASA Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations
Giger, David
1-15-13 (64K)
SpaceX Sr. Director, Dragon Development Engineering
Graham, Courtney B.
3-19-13 (105K)
NASA Attorney
Griffin, Michael D.
1-12-13 (56K)
NASA Administrator, April 2005-January 2009
Horkachuck, Michael J.
11-6-12 (108K)
1-16-13 (48K)
NASA COTS Project Executive, SpaceX
Koenigsmann, Hans
1-15-13 (58K)
SpaceX VP of Mission Assurance
Lindenmoyer, Alan J.
10-31-12 (78K)
11-7-12 (76K)
NASA COTS Program Manager
Lueders, Kathryn L.
4-17-13 (62K)
NASA ISS Transportation Integration Office Manager
Manners, Bruce A.
12-5-12 (102K)
NASA COTS Project Executive, RpK & Orbital
Marty, Alan
1-18-13 (96K)
Venture Capitalist
Muncy, James A. M.
6-21-13 (65K)
Commercial Spaceflight Advocate
Nield, George C.
3-20-13 (82K)
FAA AA for Commercial Space Transportation
Pinkston, Michael R.
6-3-13 (198K)
Orbital Senior VP, Antares Program
Price, Lisa P.
5-14-13 (45K)
NASA Budget Analyst
Reilley, Karen M.
3-19-13 (105K)
NASA Attorney
Richards, Robert T.
6-4-13 (38K)
Orbital VP, Human Spaceflight Systems
Shotwell, Gwynne E.
1-15-13 (46K)
SpaceX President & COO
Stone, Dennis A.
11-26-12 (70K)
NASA COTS Assistant Program Integration Mgr.
Thompson, David W.
6-3-13 (58K)
Orbital Chairman, President, & CEO
Thompson-King, Sumara
3-19-13 (105K)
NASA Deputy General Counsel
Thorn, Valin B.
12-17-12 (116K)
NASA COTS Deputy Program Manager
Timm, Marc G.
6-12-13 (66K)
NASA HQ COTS Program Executive
Wholley, Michael C.
3-19-13 (78K)
NASA General Counsel
Xenofos, Amy V.
12-7-12 (122K)
NASA Attorney

More transcripts are available from the alphabetical list above or from the complete list of participants.

Please note: Links on the following pages are active once the Oral History transcript is archived in the JSC History Collection.

To view the newest additions to the JSC History Collection, visit the "What's New" announcement.

Transcript lists were last updated: Dec. 30, 2015

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